Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R)

 1. Rasūlullāh (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) took responsibility for the upbringing of Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R), who remained in the care of Rasūlullāh (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) from a young age. (Ibn Hishām)

2. Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R) was ten years old when he became Muslim, and was the first child to be embrace Islam. (Bidāyah wan Nihāyah)

3. Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R) was amongst the forerunners of the Muhājirīn, and amongst the first Sahābah to pray behind Rasūlullāh (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). (Khulafā’ al-Rasūl)

4. Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R) would accompany Rasūlullāh (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and Sayyidinā Abū Bakr (R) to meet neighbouring tribes, and invite them to Islam. (Bidāyah wan Nihāyah)

5. Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R) assisted Rasūlullāh (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) in his efforts of propagation and was instrumental in guiding Sayyidinā Abū Dhar (R) to Islam. (Muslim)

6. Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R) was one of those who were able to read and write, in an illiterate society, which is indicative of his love for knowledge from an early age. (Siyarus Sahābah)

7. When departing on Hijrah, Rasūlullāh (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) entrusted Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R) with the responsibility of returning the trusts which people had left in his care. (Tabaqāt)

8. On the night of Hjirah, Sayyidinā ‘Alī (R) slept in the bed of Rasūlullāh (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), and was willing to sacrifice his life for the Rasūl of Allah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). (ibid)

9. Sayyidinā Ibn ‘Abbās (R) said: “Alī (R) sold himself (to Allah) that night when he put on the garment of the Nabī (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) and slept in his place,” making reference to the verse regarding the Sahābah who strove to attain the pleasure of Allah:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ (207)

And of the people is he who sells himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah. And Allah is kind to [His] servants. (Surah Baqarah: 207)
(Fadā’il al-Sahābah)

 1. Sayyidinā ‘Alī t migrated to Madīnah and remained close to Rasūlullāh r, playing an active role in all important matters of state. ‘Siyar A'lām an-Nubalā’

2. Sayyidinā ‘Alī t participated in all the battles alongside Rasūlullāh r with the exception of the Battle of Tabūk, wherein Rasūlullāh r left him behind to take care of the affairs of Madīnah. ‘Al-Isābah’

3. During the Battle of Badr, Sayyidinā ‘Alī t engaged the Mushrikīn in hand to hand combat and stood courageously in defence of Rasūlullāh r and Islam.

4. Rasūlullāh r married his beloved daughter, Sayyidah Fātimah, to Sayyidinā ‘Alī t, awarding him the honour of being Rasūlullāh’s r son-in-law. ‘Hilyat al-Awliyā’

5. When the Sahābah were scattered after the sudden attack of the Mushrikīn in Uhud, Sayyidinā ‘Alī t was amongst those who remained firm by the side of Rasūlullāh r. ‘Muslim’

6. Rasūlullāh r appointed Sayyidinā ‘Alī t as commander of the army on the third day of fighting during the Battle of Khaybar. ibid

7. Sayyidinā ‘Alī t was suffering from an eye-ailment on the Day of Khaybar and Rasūlullāh r applied his blessed saliva to his eyes; curing him and allowing him to see better than before. ibid

8. Sayyidinā ‘Alī t was amongst the group of Sahābah who protected Rasūlullāh r during the surprise attack of the Mushrikīn in the Battle of Hunayn. ‘Abū Ya’lā’

9. Rasūlullāh r appointed Sayyidinā ‘Alī t as a judge over the people of Yemen and supplicated for Sayyidinā ‘Alī t to be guided in his verdicts. ‘Fadā’il al-Sahābah’

10. Rasūlullāh r loved Sayyidinā ‘Alī t dearly and he was amongst those Sahābah with whom Rasūlullāh r was extremely pleased with before his demise. ‘Siyarus Sahābah’

• Sayyidinā ‘Alī t was a loyal advisor and supporter of Sayyidunā Abū Bakr t and did not miss any prayer offered behind him. ‘Bidāyah wan Nihāyah’

• Sayyidinā Abū Bakr t would give precedence to the opinion of Sayyidunā ‘Alī t when seeking advice and referring to matters of judgment. ‘Siyarus Sahābah’

• Sayyidinā ‘Alī t was a key member of the consultative committee during the khilāfah of Sayyidinā ‘Umar t, who were consulted regarding important matters of state. ‘Tabari’

• Sayyidinā ‘Alī t remained a loyal aid to the third khalīfah, Sayyidinā ‘Uthmān t, and supported him against the rebels who sought to depose him. ‘Ibn Abī Shaybah’

• Sayyidinā ‘Alī t was appointed as the fourth khalīfah, after Sayyidunā ‘Uthmān t, whose appointment was approved of by the Muhājirīn and Ansār. ‘Tabaqāt’

• Sayyidinā ‘Alī t was a devout ascetic and extremely scrupulous, never indulging himself or his family in the adornments of this world. ‘Ibn Abī Shaybah’

• The final advice which Sayyidinā ‘Alī t gave to his family, after being fatally wounded by the enemy of Allah, was:

I advise you, O Hasan and all my children and family, to fear Allah your Lord, and never die except in a state of Islam, and hold fast, all of you together, to the rope of Allah (the Qur’an), and be not divided among yourselves. I heard the Nabī say: “Reconciling between people is better than optional prayers and fasts.” Check on your relatives and uphold ties with them, then your reckoning with Allah will be easier. I urge you by Allah to be kind to orphans, and do not silence them or ignore them when they are with you. I urge you by Allah to be kind to your neighbours, for your Nabī enjoined that, and he continued to enjoin that until we thought that he would make the neighbour an heir. I urge you by Allah to take care of the Qur’ān, and do not let others be better at putting it into practice than you. I urge you by Allah to take care of the prayer, for it is the foundation of your religion. I urge you by Allah to take care of the House of your Lord; do not forsake it as long as you live. I urge you by Allah to engage in jihad for the sake of Allah with your wealth and your lives. I urge you by Allah to take care of zakāh, for it extinguishes the wrath of the Lord. I urge you by Allah to take care of those under your authority. Prayer, prayer; never fear the blame of the blamers for the sake of Allah. Allah will suffice you against anyone who wants to harm or transgress against you. Speak kindly to people as Allah has commanded you, and do not give up enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, lest the worst of you attain positions of authority, then you will call upon Allah but receive no response. I enjoin you to keep in touch with one another and help one another; beware of turning away from one another, cutting off ties with one another and becoming divided. Cooperate in righteousness and piety; do not cooperate in sin and transgression. Fear Allah, for Allah is severe in punishment. May Allah take care of you, my household. May the teachings of the Nabī continue to guide you. I bid you farewell, peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah. ‘Tabarī’

• Sayyidinā Sahl ibn Saʿd t narrated: “On the day (of the battle) of Khaybar Rasūlullāh r said, “Tomorrow I will give the flag to someone who will be given victory (by Allah) and who loves Allah and His Rasūl and is loved by Allah and His Rasūl.” So, the people wondered the entire night as to who would receive the flag and in the morning, and everyone hoped that he would be that person. Rasūlullāh r asked, “Where is ʿAlī?” He was told that ʿAlī was suffering from eye-trouble, so he [Rasūlullāh r] applied saliva to his eyes and supplicated to Allah to cure him. He was cured instantly and felt as if he had no pain. Rasūlullāh r gave him the flag. ʿAlī t said, “Should I fight them till they become like us (i.e. Muslim)?” Rasūlullāh r said, “Go to them with calmness until you enter their land. Then, invite them to Islam, and inform them what is enjoined upon them, for, by Allah, if Allah gives guidance to somebody through you, it is better for you than possessing red camels.” (Bukhārī & Muslim)

• Sayyidinā ʿAlī t said: “By He Who caused the seed to split and brought every living thing to life, it is the covenant of the unlettered Prophet r to me that no one would love me but a believer, and none but a hypocrite would nurse grudge against me.” (Muslim)

• Sayyidinā Saʿd t narrated: “Rasūlullāh r set out for Tabūk and appointed ʿAlī as his deputy (over his family in Madīnah). ʿAlī t said, ‘do you want to leave me with the children and women?’ Rasūlullāh r said, ‘will it not please you that you will be to me, like Hārūn u was to Mūsā u, except there will be no nabī after me?’” (Bukhārī & Muslim)

• Sayyidinā ʿAlī t said: “Rasūlullāh r sent me to Yemen. I said, ‘O Rasūl of Allah, you are sending me to judge between them while I am a young man, and I do not know how to judge.’ He placed his hand on my chest, striking it, and said, ‘O Allah, guide his heart and make his tongue steadfast.’ And after that I never doubted in passing judgment between two people.” (Abū Dāwūd, Ibn Mājah)

• Sayyidinā Abū Dharr t took an oath that the verse, ‘These two adversaries who dispute about their Rabb…’ [al-Ḥajj:19] was revealed in connection with those, who on the Day of Badr, came out to fight against the non-believers and they were: Hamzah, ʿAlī, ʿUbaydah ibn Hārith (from the side of the Muslims) and ʿUtbah and Shaybah, both of them the sons of Rabīʿah and Walīd ibn ʿUtbah (from the side of the Quraysh). (Bukhārī & Muslim)

• After Sayyidinā ʿUmar t was stabbed he was asked about who the Khalīfah ought to be after him. He responded as follows: “I do not consider anyone more deserving of the Khilāfah than those with whom Rasūlullāh r was always pleased till his death. And whoever is chosen by the people after me will be the Khalīfah, and you people must listen to him and obey him,” and then he mentioned the names of ʿUthmān, ʿAlī, Talhah, Zubayr, ʿAbd al-Rahmān ibn ʿAwf and Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās. [Bukhārī]

• Sayyidinā Zayd ibn Arqam t narrated that the Rasūlullāh r said: “Whoever considers me a close friend and ally, then ʿAli is also his close friend and ally.” (Tirmidhī)